In the book Outliers , author Malcolm Gladwell says that it takes roughly ten thousand hours of practice to achieve mastery in a field. How does Gladwell arrive at this conclusion? And, if the conclusion is true, how can we leverage this idea to achieve greatness in our professions? Gladwell studied the lives of extremely successful people to find out how they achieved success. In the early s, a team of psychologists in Berlin, Germany studied violin students.
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Natural Talent: Not Important
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What does it take to become an expert or master performer in a given field? Ericsson says the rule is an oversimplification, and in many ways, an incorrect interpretation of his research. The 10, Hour Rule: Catchy and easy to remember, but on some pretty shaky scientific footing. Gladwell uses several examples in his book when introducing this rule: one is the research done by Ericsson that focused on violin students at a music academy in Berlin. The study found that the most accomplished of the students had put in 10, hours by the time they turned Gladwell also estimates that the Beatles put in 10, hours of practice playing in Hamburg in the early s, and that Bill Gates put in 10, hours of programming work before founding Microsoft. Hence the 10, hour rule was born: put in your 10, hours of practice, and become an expert in a given field. Pretty easy, right? First of all, Ericsson says, the number 10, is totally arbitrary.
If you want to become great at anything, it matters more how you practice than how much you practice. The research shows that for the overwhelming majority of experts who reach the top of their fields for instance, chess grandmasters or great composers have spent a minimum of ten years acquiring and honing their skills. The few who are exceptions to this rule are found to hit their expert status in year eight or nine of their careers—not far short of the average. Only one who devotes himself to a cause with his whole strength and soul can be a true master. For this reason, mastery demands all of a person. Deliberate Practice. A fascinating exception to the 10,hour rule is Magnus Carlsen , the youngest chess player ever to reach a number one world ranking. Carlsen played computer chess to amass a huge amount of deliberate practice in a short period of time—so, although it seems as if his talent is innate because he reached expert level at such a young age, what he really did was accelerate his learning process by focusing on the right type of practice all the time and by getting constant feedback. Perhaps the greatest difference between deliberate practice and simple repetition is this: feedback.